Wednesday, March 18, 2020

49 Tips on How to Cheat at College

49 Tips on How to Cheat at College 49 Tips on How to Cheat at College Do you remember that frigging fear, when you enter your class to take a test and understand that you remember nothing on the subject? You may have missed the classes or spent a previous night out, so there wasn’t enough time to study. Or you just wanted to relax and spend your time in a better way. In all such cases, you may want to cheat to save yourself and not to worsen your grades. We have collected 49 tips on how to save you from a disastrous test and help to sleep better at night. If you think that you are the only one to cheat, relax! According to the latest study, over 60% of all the students cheat in the class. Ask a friend. This one is probably the most popular way of cheating and only requires a reliable friend, who will be willing to assist you. Provide him with all the necessary notes and make sure he has internet connection to be able to get all the information fast. You will only need to text him a message with a question and wait for an answer; Use an earpiece. If you like spy movies, you will definitely like this method. Just buy an earpiece with a Bluetooth and record lectures beforehand. You will be able to listen to them and extract all the necessary information; Take a bottle with you. Make small notes and put them inside the wrapper. You can open them any time and no one will understand that your bottle is not for drinking! Classical method. You can make notes on any item you are allowed to take to the test. This can be a calculator, a ruler or an index card. You can use it any time you need and your professor won’t suspect anything; Order online. This type of an assistance is applicable for written tests, like essays or reports. You can hire an online writing company and give them all the details of the task. Then you will only need to check it on plagiarism to make sure it is original and memorize the paper before the test; Use your arms. You can make notes on your hand and a forearm, covering them with a sleeve. In such a way, no one will notice it and you will easily get access to the information any time you need; Take a mechanical pencil with you. This one is a simple trick: write down the notes on a tiny sheet of paper, roll it and put inside the barrel; Look at your neighbor’s work. Make sure he has excellent skills on the topic, as you may fail if rewriting answers of someone, who is also not good at the subject; Search online. If you can pull out your smartphone in the class, just type the request in your browser and get all the information you need. You can also go to the bathroom and find all the data; Stretch a rubber band and write down all the notes you may need. When it gets back to its usual size, there won’t be any trace of the notes and you will only need to stretch it again if you need help; Ask for a sample. If your friend or any other student is holding a test before you, ask him to make a photo of the test. You will be able to prepare the answers or learn them by heart before starting the test on your own; Buy a smart watch. You can make all the notes on your smartphone and simply link it with a smart watch. In such a way, you can ‘check the time’ and get all the information you may need; Make a hole in your eraser and put notes inside; Take a bigger eraser and write all the answers on it. If professor is approaching, simply erase the answers with a smaller one; Learn while sleeping. Play an audio version of the lectures, while you are asleep. Scientists say that you will remember all the information and will be able to use it any time you need; Print a mini-book. Type all the notes, print them and cut small squares, making a sort of a booklet; Take an mp3 pen, which contains all the information you may need; Just put all the notes you need to the inside of the hat; Write down the notes on the inside of your hat and put it on your table. Consult your hat any time you need assistance; Use a rubber part of the shoes to make all the notes and use it, when you need to get the answers; Get a partner. Cooperate with another student and share answers. Two heads may be much better than one! Look for clues. Look around as if you are thinking about something and try to search for the answers. There may be posters with diagrams or data on the walls of your classroom; Go to the bathroom. Excuse yourself as if you need to pee and simply use your phone or consult a friend to get all the answers you need; Put your thighs together and place all the notes between them. Your professor will never suspect that you are holding notes there! Use the ‘sneezing system’. Partner with a friend, who can make sneezes with the answers. For example ‘be-choo’ for an answer ‘B’; Learn one half of the test and leave the second one to your friend. Sit near to each other on a test and share the answers. This is a great way to get excellent grades without spending too much time over books; Use gestures with a friend to share the answers. You may even learn a basic sign language; For advanced students, there is a ‘morse code’. For example, one tap goes to the answer ‘A’, two taps for ‘B’ and so on; Wear a tie and use its back to hide all the necessary notes; Take a gum with you and put the answers inside of its wrapper; A belt buckle calculator. Yes, you heard it! If you are not allowed to take a calculator to the class, you may use the one, which is hidden in the buckle of a belt; Write down all the answers you need on a bookmark, placed in your textbook. Replace it with the next one if necessary; Pretend that you are using a calculator on your smartphone and consult the notes instead; Light inks. Use them to make notes on the index cards and your tutor won’t see them; Replace the tests. This one is quite tricky but guarantees that you will get the highest grade. Ask your friend to take a photo of the test, print it at home and fill in all the answer to pass at the classroom; Consult Wikipedia. You can download their app or simply enter the website from your browser. It is a perfect place to get brief information on a subject; Another favorite trick for all the lovers of spy movies is to buy an ink for a black light and take it with you to the class; Use a skirt. Hide all the notes under your skirt and your tutor won’t be able to check whether you have any hidden answers. Unfortunately, this is an option only for the girls; Buy a see-through pen and put all your notes inside of it; Make all the notes on a small sheet of paper and put them inside the case of your calculator. Any time your professor is approaching, close the case; Take an electronic dictionary, which contains all the notes you need. Most professors mistakenly take such dictionaries for a calculator; Make pictures of the study materials and open them on your phone at the class or while you are in the bathroom; Use an invisible ink to make notes on your desk. Any time you need answers, you will only have to use an ultraviolet light and no one will suspect anything; Put a blank sheet of paper over the one, which contains the answers. Put it aside if you need access to the notes or return to its place if the tutor is approaching; Contact anyone, who is online via various messaging apps or social media and ask for help. It will be even better if you can do it in a hall or in a bathroom; Buy spyglasses, which play the video of the notes or a textbook. This is quite a costly option but definitely one of the coolest ones; Reproduce your ‘cheat sheet’ with a laser pen. However, you should be sitting on the back row of the class; If you are assigned to complete a written assignment but you are running out of time, you can artificially increase the margins, fonts, spaces and so on; Learn! Of course, cheating in the class is much simpler but you can take some time and study to get the highest scores without any harm. Use an appropriate and the most suitable way for a particular situation and you will surely get high grades and save your time to prepare for the test.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Johannes Vermeer Bio - Dutch Baroque Painter

Johannes Vermeer Bio - Dutch Baroque Painter Movement, Style, School or Type of Art: Dutch Baroque Date and Place of Birth: October 31, 1632, Delft, Netherlands This was, at least, the date on which Vermeer was baptized. There is no record of his actual date of birth, though we assume it was close to the above. Vermeers parents were Protestant Reformed, a Calvinist denomination that held infant baptism as a sacrament. (Vermeer himself is thought to have converted to Roman Catholicism when he married.) Life: Perhaps appropriately, given the scant factual documentation about this artist, any discussion of Vermeer must begin with confusion over his real name. Its known that he went by his birth name, Johannes van der Meer, shortened it to Jan Vermeer later in life and was given the third moniker of Jan Vermeer van Delft (presumably to distinguish him from an unrelated family of Jan Vermeers who painted in Amsterdam). These days, the artists name is correctly referenced as Johannes Vermeer. We also know when he was married and buried, and civic records from Delft indicate the dates Vermeer was admitted to the painters guild and took out loans. Other records tell that, after his early death, his widow filed for bankruptcy and support for their eight minor (the youngest of eleven, total) children. As Vermeer did not enjoy fame - or even a widespread reputation as an artist - during his lifetime, everything else written about him is (at best) an educated guess. Vermeers early work concentrated on history paintings but, around 1656, he moved into the genre paintings he would produce for the rest of his career. The man seems to have painted with painstaking slowness, dissecting a whole color spectrum out of white light, executing near-perfect optical precision and reproducing the most minute details. This may have translated to fussy from another artist, but with Vermeer it all served to highlight the personality of the pieces central figure(s). Possibly the most amazing thing about this immensely famous artist is that hardly anyone knew he had lived, let alone painted, for centuries after his death. Vermeer wasnt discovered until 1866, when the French art critic and historian, Thà ©ophile Thorà ©, published a monograph about him. In the years since, Vermeers authenticated output has been variously numbered at between 35 and 40 pieces, although people hopefully search for more now that they are known to be both rare and valuable. Important Works: Diana and her Companions, 1655-56 Procuress, 1656 Girl Asleep at a Table, ca. 1657 Officer with a Laughing Girl, ca. 1655-60 The Music Lesson, 1662-65 Girl with a Pearl Earring, ca. 1665-66 Allegory of the Art of Painting, ca. 1666-67 Date and Place of Death: December 16, 1675, Delft, Netherlands As with his baptismal record, this is the date upon which Vermeer was buried. Youd want to assume his burial was very near to his date of death, though. How To Pronounce Vermeer: vur ·mear Quotes From Johannes Vermeer: No, sorry. We have nothing from this man of mystery. We can only imagine what he might have said. (One guess, with eleven children in the house, would be the occasional plea for quiet.) Sources and Further Reading Arasse, Daniel; Grabar, Terry (trans.). Vermeer: Faith in Painting.Princeton : Princeton University Press, 1994. Baker, Christopher. Vermeer, Jan [Johannes Vermeer]The Oxford Companion to Western Art. Ed. Hugh Brigstocke. Oxford University Press, 2001. Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, 6 November 2005. Franits, Wayne. Vermeer, Johannes [Jan] Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, 6 November 2005. Read a review of Grove Art Online. Montias, John M. Artists and Artisans in Delft, a Socio-Economic Study of the Seventeenth Century.Princeton : Princeton University Press, 1981. Snow, Edward A. A Study of Vermeer.Berkeley : University of California Press, 1994 (revised ed.). Wheelock, Arthur K.; Broos, Ben. Johannes Vermeer.New Haven : Yale University Press, 1995. Wolf, Bryan Jay. Vermeer and the Invention of Seeing.Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 2001. Videos Worth Watching Dutch Masters: Vermeer (2000) Girl With a Pearl Earring (2004) Vermeer: Master of Light (2001)Publisher website Vermeer: Light, Love and Silence (2001) See more resources on Johannes Vermeer. Go to Artist Profiles: Names beginning with V or Artist Profiles: Main Index

Friday, February 14, 2020

Managerial Economics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Managerial Economics - Essay Example Rationality is considered as an important aspect of the behavioural theory (Simon, 2001). There is a distance between the behaviour and rationality and they are connected by the concept of decision making. A decision making process is common in an organization where the managers have to take various decisions in order to achieve the mission of the organization (Ethiraj and Levinthal, 2004). The aim for this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of bounded rationality and the critical analysis of how the heuristics creates biasness towards decision making. The research would offer a scope to have a detailed analysis of bounded rationality as explained by Herbert Simon. According Herbert Simon (1961), rationality in behavioural characteristics of a person considers a relation of efficacy between the presumed end and the means to reach them (Kahneman, 2003). According to the researcher, the human beings lack in their rational behaviour due to the different aspects that is the rationality requires knowledge as well as understanding of the situation. However, the decision makers cannot be always called as rational because since they are likely to take decisions based on the available data and are unable to incorporate new information within their decision making process. According to the researcher, the organization must have a clear organizational goal so that the employees can work hard in order to achieve the goal (Simon, 2001). The organizations would have benefits for developing the organizational goals that helps in the organizational decision making process. It is said when the organizational members experience bounded rationality, managing the situations becomes much more difficult and the organizations are supposed to use both formal and informal control mechanisms in order to make the employees perform rationally (Simon, 2001). A theory of rational behaviour involves both the rationality of the individual as well

Saturday, February 1, 2020

The Arbitration Provisions Introduced by the United Nations Research Paper

The Arbitration Provisions Introduced by the United Nations Conventions for Contracts of Carriage by Sea - Research Paper Example The Rotterdam Rules on arbitration emphasizes the right of disputants to choose an arbitration forum that is more convenient to them. At the same time, volume contracts limit these choices and also bind third parties to arbitration agreements between the disputants.3 It therefore appears that the Rotterdam Rules’ arbitration provision contain a number of problems that can be counterproductive to the goal of harmonisation of the international rules applicable to contracts for the carriage of goods by sea. In addition to conflicts contained within the provisions and definition complications, there is also the possibility that arbitration on a single dispute can take place in several places. It is also possible that states adopting the arbitration provisions may not have the maritime expertise to properly resolve maritime disputes or may lack a litigation system capable of supporting arbitration proceedings. This is particularly so since the Rotterdam Rules can apply to contracts for the carriage of goods by means other than by sea, at least partially.4 This research study provides a critical analysis of the arbitration provisions of the Rotterdam Rules and identifies the intended goals of these provisions and the extent to which the Rotterdam Rules have the potential to achieve these goals. Table of Contents Abstract 2 Introduction 4 Research Questions 7 Primary Research Question 8 Secondary Research Questions 8 Statement of the Problem 8 Significance of the Study 9 Delimitation of the Study 10 Research Methodology 10 Overview: International Arbitration of Maritime Contracts 11 The Arbitration Provisions of the Rotterdam Rules 14 Scope and Application of the Rotterdam Rules 14 Arbitration Agreements 17 Volume Contracts 21 Non-Liner Transport 27 The Opt-In Provision 29 Conflict with Other International Instruments 32 Conclusion and Recommendations 34 Conclusion 34 Recommendations 36 Bibligraphy 39 Introduction The Rotterdam Rules introduces into the interna tional regulatory framework a method for regulating â€Å"multimodal transport†.5 In this regard, multimodal transport not only refers to transport by virtue of sea, but also contemplates various other modes of transportation.6 In drafting the Rotterdam Rules the United Nations came to the conclusion that the more than 90 year old Hague Convention was inadequate for responding to the modern intricacies of international cargo transport particularly since today’s transport frequently involves several different modes of transportation. The use of different conventions only created difficulties and conflicts in establishing liability since different rules apply to different transport modes.7 Regardless, the main premise of the Rotterdam Rules is maritime transport and thus, the Rules may be properly defined as a â€Å"maritime plus convention.†8 The Rotterdam Rules introduce arbitration provisions for resolving disputes in specific contracts for carriage by sea situ ations.9 The

Friday, January 24, 2020

Huckleberry Finn, a Book of Controversy :: essays papers

Huckleberry Finn, a Book of Controversy Since its publication over one hundred years ago, Mark Twain?s Huckleberry Finn has caused many disagreements and much controversy. The style and language used by Mark Twain is found as offensive to some, uplifting to others and yet bittersweet to me. All sides have strong arguments, ones that are educated and heartfelt. That is what makes it so difficult to decide whether to teach or read aloud Huckleberry Finn in the classroom. Opponents of the teaching, or usage, of Huckleberry Finn in the classroom say that they find the book despicable, ?trash? and other harsh adjectives. One of the main reasons they criticize the book is for the usage of racial slurs towards the African-American people, such as ?nigger.? They also claim that the author, Mark Twain, stereotypes Jim, an escaped African-American slave, as to be a fool with less intelligence than a fourteen-year-old Caucasian boy does. As John H. Wallace puts it, ?It [Huckleberry Finn] contributes to their [the African-American students] feelings of low self-esteem and to the white student?s disrespect for black people As you can see feelings of some are bitter towards the usage of Huckleberry Finn in the classroom. Proponents of the book claim that the book should be taught for several reasons, including the anti-slavery message of the book. In contrast to the opponents, David L. Smith writes, he [Mark Twain] portrays Jim [the escaping slave] as a compassionate, shrewd, thoughtful, self-sacrificing, and even a wise man.? Supporters also point out that Twain actually condemns white society of the day for their barbaric practice of slavery. Supporter, Kenny G. Williams, feels that the novel should be read, for it uncovers a basic historical reality, which is important for the advancement of equality. Now you can see how people?s positions on the usage of Huckleberry Finn vary greatly from on another. I have not yet read the book, yet through some research I have found that I more support the book than denounce it. I interviewed a dark skinned friend of mine, Sanjay Nakka, and he had a positive message. He said, ?The usage of this book [Huckleberry Finn] is quintessential to the acceptance of racial equality. Sometimes we need some controversy to bring a problem to light, where you can work on it, you know I also tend to lean towards his opinion, for I have heard strong arguments against the book, yet I have heard stronger, more heartfelt and educated arguments for the use of Huckleberry Finn in the classroom.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

The Rebranding of Lenovo After Its Acquisition of Thinkpad

The Rebranding of Lenovo after Its Acquisition of ThinkPad Chinese company Lenovo, founded in Beijing in 1984 and incorporated in Hong Kong in 1988, has gone through rebranding after its 2005 acquisition of the ThinkPad PC business from U. S. firm IBM. [1] Since then, Lenovo has risen to become the top PC maker alongside Hewlett-Packard, and analysts point to its ThinkPad products as a major factor behind its success. Lenovo's acquisition of IBM's personal computer division accelerated access to foreign markets while improving both its branding and technology.Before 2005, Lenovo lacked international recognition, attention to user and user experience outside China. The acquisition of the ThinkPad not only helped Lenovo promote brand image, but also helped it build the awareness in overseas markets. In order to extend the market and compete against its competitors Lenovo has pursued innovative new PC designs such as its popular IdeaPad Yoga products, ThinkPad Helix, and ThinkPad Twist. Lenovo has achieved significant success with this high-value strategy and it now controls more than 40% of the market for Windows computers priced above $900 in the United States. 2] Keeping the original name ThinkPad, Lenovo puts its brand identity in front of it. The brand value of ThinkPad has been successfully kept after being acquired by Lenovo. Shipments of Think-branded computers have doubled since Lenovo's takeover of the brand, with operating margins thought to be above 5%. [2] Lenovo has aggressively expanded the ThinkPad brand away from traditional laptop computers in favor of tablets and hybrid devices such as ThinkPad Helix and the ThinkPad Twist. Lenovo ThinkPadThinkPad line has filled up the blank of high-end products, completing the whole product lines of Lenovo. Now, Lenovo offers a multiplicity of product lines, and successfully seizing both high-end and low-end market. ThinkPad products are aimed at producing enterprise machines and high-end consumer products and positioned to compete with Apple in the high-end market. While, other product lines, such as IdeaPad and Essential, are focusing on mid- and low-range products, competing with HP, Deal as well as other mid-and –low range price PC producers.To improve its brand awareness in the international retail market, Lenovo has invested heavily in media and promotion. Lenovo hoped to establish a worldwide brand image of cool and innovative, rather than a synonym for cheap. Lenovo has purchased the advertising space during Super Bowl and a popular TV show â€Å"Glee†. One ad shows a Lenovo notebook open its parachute after being thrown out of an airplane, which displays the Quick Launch feature of the Lenovo notebook. In the lobby of the Lenovo U. S. building, the tagline â€Å"For those who do† can be easily found everywhere.Lenovo was also cleverly advertised in a Hollywood movie Transformers: Dark of the Moon. In the movie, a computer transforms into a robot friend of th e hero, Shia Labeouf — and the name of the computer company is there for all to see: Lenovo. â€Å"Chinese enterprises are looking for better opportunities to promote brands globally, and Hollywood is a good platform,† said Liu Siru, head of the advertising company Filmworks China Entertainment Marketing, which is operating in the US movie hub[3]. References: [1]: Company history of Lenovo on their official website, http://www. enovo. com/lenovo/us/en/history. html [2]: [From guard shack to global giant; Chinese industry â€Å"From guard shack to global giant; Chinese industry†]. The Economist. January 12, 2013. Retrieved February 5, 2013. [3]: Chen Jia: Remake, Remodel and Rebrand: Chinese firms need to raise their game to gain international recognition, October 2, 2011. [4]: Craig Stephen (August 20, 2012), China’s Lenovo may be one-off success,MarketWatch, August 20, 2012. [5]: â€Å"Face value: Legend in the making†. The Economist, February 6, 2013.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

What Makes Stalkers Kill

Not all stalkers are killers, but most killers are stalkers. Determining the factors that differentiate the violent stalker from the nonviolent stalker is complex. Statistical data is skewed because many cases that begin as stalking escalate to more serious crimes and are then classified as such. For example, a criminal who stalked his victim for two years and then murdered them is often statistically classified as only a murderer. While state reporting is improving in this area, it is a flaw in a lot of the statistical data that is currently available. It is thus difficult to obtain hard data as to how many murders were the end result of stalking behavior. Another issue with the current data is that about 50 percent of stalking crimes go unreported by the victims. This is particularly true in the cases of stalking between intimate partners or when a stalker who is known to the victim. Victims who do not report being stalked often cite their reasons as fearing reprisal from the stalker or their belief that the police cannot help. Lastly, stalkers being under-identified by the criminal justice system has added to the inaccuracies in the data. An Office of Justice Programs survey of criminal justice practitioners found that stalkers continue to be charged and sentenced under harassment, intimidation, or other related laws instead of under a states anti-stalking statute. Stalking Defined Prior to 1990, there were no anti-stalking laws in the United States. California was the first state to criminalize stalking after several high-profile stalking cases including the attempted murder of actress Theresa Saldana, the 1988 mass murder at ESL Incorporated by a former employee and stalker Richard Farley, and the 1989 murder of actress Rebecca Schaeffer by stalker Robert John Bardo. Other states were quick to follow suit and, by the end of 1993, all states had anti-stalking laws. Stalking is largely defined by the National Institute of Justice as a course of conduct directed at a specific person that involves repeated (two or more occasions) visual or physical proximity, nonconsensual communication, or verbal, written, or implied threats, or a combination thereof, that would cause a reasonable person fear. Though recognized as a crime throughout the United States, stalking varies widely in statute definition, scope, crime classification, and penalty. Stalker and Victim Relationship While the criminalization of stalking is relatively new, stalking is not a new human behavior. While there are many studies performed in reference to the victims of stalkers, the research on stalkers is more limited. Why people become stalkers is complicated and multifaceted. However, recent forensic research has helped to understand different patterns of stalking behavior. This research has aided in identifying those stalkers who are likely to be the most dangerous and high risk for injuring or murdering their victims. The relationship between the stalker and the victim has proven a key factor in understanding the level of risks to the victims. Forensic research has broken down the relationships into three groups. Former intimate partners. This includes current and former husbands, cohabitants, and boyfriends and girlfriends.Friends, family members, and acquaintances,A private stranger which includes public figures. The former intimate partner group is the largest category of stalking cases. It is also the group where the highest risks exist for the stalkers to become violent. Several studies have identified a significant association between intimate partner stalking and sexual assault. Classifying Stalker Behavior In 1993, stalker expert Paul Mullen, who was the director and chief psychiatrist at Forensicare in Victoria, Australia, performed extensive studies on the behavior of stalkers. The research was designed to help diagnose and categorize stalkers, and it included the typical triggers that cause their behavior to become more volatile. Furthermore, these studies included recommended treatment plans. Mullen and his research team came up with five categories of stalkers: Rejected Stalker Rejected stalking is seen in cases where there is an unwanted breakdown of a close relationship, most often with a romantic partner, but it can include family members, friends, and work associates. The desire to seek revenge becomes an alternative when the stalker’s hope for reconciliation with his victim is diminished. The stalker will characteristically use stalking as a substitute for the lost relationship. Stalking provides the opportunity for continued contact with the victim. It also allows the stalker to feel more control over the victim and provides a way to nurse the stalker’s damaged self-esteem. Intimacy Seeker Stalkers classified as intimacy seekers are driven by loneliness and mental illness. They are delusional and often believe that they are in love with a complete stranger and that the feeling is reciprocated (erotomanic delusions). Intimacy seekers are generally socially awkward and intellectually weak. They will emulate what they believe is normal behavior for a couple in love. They will buy their true love flowers, send them intimate gifts and write them an excessive amount of love letters. Intimacy seekers are often unable to recognize that their attention is unwanted because of their belief that they share a special bond with their victim. Incompetent Stalker The incompetent stalkers and intimacy seekers share some of the same characteristics in that they both tend to be socially awkward and intellectually challenged and their targets are strangers.  Unlike intimacy stalkers, incompetent stalkers are not looking for a long lasting relationship, but rather for something short term like a date or a brief sexual encounter. They recognize when their victims are rejecting them, but this only fuels their efforts to win them over. At this stage, their methods become increasingly negative and fearful to the victim. For example, a love note at this stage may say Im watching you rather than I love you. Resentful Stalker Resentful stalkers want revenge, not a relationship, with their victims. They often feel that they have been belittled, humiliated, or mistreated. They consider themselves the victim rather than the person they are stalking. According to Mullen, resentful stalkers suffer from paranoia and they often had fathers who were intensely controlling. They will compulsively dwell on the times in their lives when they experienced extreme distress. They act out in the present day the negative emotions that their past experiences have caused. They attach responsibility for the painful experiences they suffered in the past the victims they are targeting in the present. Predator Stalker Like the resentful stalker, the predator stalker does not seek a relationship with his victim, but instead finds satisfaction in feeling power and control over their victims. Research proves that the predator stalker is the most violent type of stalker in that they often fantasize about physically harming their victims, often in a sexual way. They find immense pleasure in letting their victims know that they can harm them at any time. They often collect personal information about their victims and will involve the victims family members or professional contacts in their stalking behavior, usually in some derogatory way. Stalking and Mental Illness Not all stalkers have a mental disorder, but it is not uncommon. At least 50 percent of stalkers that suffer from mental disorders have often had some involvement with the criminal justice or mental health services. They suffer from disorders such as personality disorders, schizophrenia, depression, with substance abuse being the most common disorder. Mullens research suggests that most stalkers should not be treated as criminals but rather people who are suffering from mental disorders and who are in need of professional help. Resources and Further Reading Mohandie, Meloy, Green-McGowan, Williams (2006). Journal of Forensic Sciences 51, 147-155)